The trainee must gain knowledge and experience in a number of
related areas of medicine, including the following:
Trainees will learn to interpret cardiovascular X-ray films, with
particular reference to vascular structures and special
cardiovascular radiologic procedures.
The risks and benefits of cardiothoracic and cardiovascular
surgery, and the rationale for the selection of candidates for
surgical treatment, as well as the natural history and the pre-
and post-operative management of patients with cardiovascular
disease and various co-morbid conditions.
Close collaboration with anesthesia colleagues in the pre- and
post-operative management of patients with cardiac disease for
cardiac and noncardiac surgery, as well as cardiac procedures
that require anesthesia (e.g., cardioversion).
A solid knowledge of basic pulmonary physiology, in addition to
the interpretation of pulmonary and cardiopulmonary function
testing, blood gases, pulmonary angiography and radiology lung
scanning methods, as well as experience with management of
patients with acute pulmonary disease.
A solid knowledge of the inter-relations between pregnancy and
heart disease, together with experience in the clinical
management of patients with heart disease who are pregnant, and
safety of cardiovascular drug use in pregnancy.
Trainees will learn the physiology of the cardiovascular system,
its response to exercise and stress, and the alterations produced
by aging and disease.
Trainees will learn the pharmacology and interactions of
cardiovascular drugs, and drugs that affect cardiovascular
Trainees will become familiar with the gross and microscopic
pathology of all major forms of heart disease.
Trainees will become familiar with the effects of aging on
cardiovascular disease and therapy.