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Related Fields of Medicine

The trainee must gain knowledge and experience in a number of related areas of medicine, including the following:

Radiology
Trainees will learn to interpret cardiovascular X-ray films, with particular reference to vascular structures and special cardiovascular radiologic procedures.

Surgery
The risks and benefits of cardiothoracic and cardiovascular surgery, and the rationale for the selection of candidates for surgical treatment, as well as the natural history and the pre- and post-operative management of patients with cardiovascular disease and various co-morbid conditions.

Anesthesia
Close collaboration with anesthesia colleagues in the pre- and post-operative management of patients with cardiac disease for cardiac and noncardiac surgery, as well as cardiac procedures that require anesthesia (e.g., cardioversion).

Pulmonary disease
A solid knowledge of basic pulmonary physiology, in addition to the interpretation of pulmonary and cardiopulmonary function testing, blood gases, pulmonary angiography and radiology lung scanning methods, as well as experience with management of patients with acute pulmonary disease.

Obstetrics
A solid knowledge of the inter-relations between pregnancy and heart disease, together with experience in the clinical management of patients with heart disease who are pregnant, and safety of cardiovascular drug use in pregnancy.

Physiology
Trainees will learn the physiology of the cardiovascular system, its response to exercise and stress, and the alterations produced by aging and disease.

Pharmacology
Trainees will learn the pharmacology and interactions of cardiovascular drugs, and drugs that affect cardiovascular function.

Pathology
Trainees will become familiar with the gross and microscopic pathology of all major forms of heart disease.

Geriatrics
Trainees will become familiar with the effects of aging on cardiovascular disease and therapy.