It is essential for trainees to acquire a thorough understanding
of the normal physiology of the circulatory system, including the
adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise, stress,
pregnancy, aging and renal and pulmonary abnormalities. Trainees
must be able to reliably interpret tests of renal and pulmonary
Learning in pharmacology should recognize dietary, renal and
hepatic function, as well as geriatric influence on drug therapy.
Complementary medicine as it affects traditional cardiovascular
therapy should be included in the curriculum.
The availability of educational programs in biostatistics,
computer sciences and biophysics is highly desirable. Training in
medical economics, health care systems delivery, clinical
decision making, preventive medicine and health care outcomes are