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Related Sciences

It is essential for trainees to acquire a thorough understanding of the normal physiology of the circulatory system, including the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise, stress, pregnancy, aging and renal and pulmonary abnormalities. Trainees must be able to reliably interpret tests of renal and pulmonary function.

Learning in pharmacology should recognize dietary, renal and hepatic function, as well as geriatric influence on drug therapy. Complementary medicine as it affects traditional cardiovascular therapy should be included in the curriculum.

The availability of educational programs in biostatistics, computer sciences and biophysics is highly desirable. Training in medical economics, health care systems delivery, clinical decision making, preventive medicine and health care outcomes are also available.